Tag Archives: Law

Think tank finds May 13 polls ‘questionable’

Prof. Bobby Tuazon, Director for Policy Studies at think tank Center for People Empowerment in Governance (CenPEG) on Wednesday said the May 13 midterm polls were unreliable, citing several aspects of non-compliance with election laws.

“Kwestyunable [dahil] ung proseso na dinaanan ng midterm elections—ranging from patuloy na non-compliance sa mahigpit na election provisions—digital signature, verifiability feature [hanggang] itong nangyaring premature proclamation,” Tuazon said in an interview aired over GMA News TV’s “News to Go”

Tuazon added that the observation was not just CenPEG’s alone, as other election watchdogs also saw the poll results as unreliable.

“Kabilang na diyan ang AES (Automated Election System) watch at ilan pang kapatid dito sa election monitoring, ay nagkakaisa sila na kwestyunable ang naging conduct at naging resulta ng midterm election,” he said.

Tuason pointed out that to date, around 10 million votes have yet to be counted and these “missing” votes gave the elections a sense of confusion.

“‘Yung the fact na halos 13 thousand ER’s (election returns) ay hindi pa talagang nata-transmit, equivalent iyon to 8 million to 10 million votes that remained to be unaccounted for; pinaka latest ang discrepancies na nakita roon sa kalahati ng mga RMA (Random Manual Audit) areas,” he said.

“Lahat ng ito, tingin namin, nagdudulot ng pangamba at agam agam sa question na was the vote really counted? Sino ba talaga actual na nanalo at natalo lalo na sa senatorial race?” he added.

Accuracy rating

Tuazon also brought up the much debated accuracy rating of the PCOS machines, saying that even before the elections were conducted, the machines failed to meet parameters during tests.

“If we go back to the discovery, na natagpuan namin, na accuracy rating of PCOS system ng Smartmatic, batay doon sa idinaos na mock elections sa House of Representatives noong July 24 to 25 of 2012, lumalabas doon ‘yung ang accuracy rating ay taliwas doon sa R.A. 9369. Sinasabi sa batas na dapat ang accuracy rating nito ay 99.995 percent,” Tuazon said.

But instead of 99.995 percent, Tuazon revealed that the PCOS’ rating was 97 percent.

“So, ‘yung nakikita nating discrepancies, ‘yung probable program errors, lahat ng ito manifestation ng realization na kwestyunable ang accuracy rating ng PCOS system ng Smartmatic,” he said.

Tuazon also pointed out the earlier pattern observed by an Ateneo professor that constantly showed administration bets garnering 60 percent of votes while the opposition and the independent candidates received 30 and 10 percent, respectively.,

“How about ‘yung pattern na nakita 60-30-10, very interesting pattern, although, hindi pa naman conclusive ‘yan. Pero it really raises this question, kung iko-correspond sa sinabi ni Chairman Brillantes, sinabi niya na ‘we decide the result of the election not on the basis of concrete results, but on the basis of projection and anticipated votes.’ I mean, saan galing ‘yung ganung klase?” Tuazon said. — Patricia Denise Chiu/DVM, GMA News

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SOCIAL MEDIA AND DISASTER RECOVERY

Nothing is more beneficial during a modern disaster than public participation. As the saying goes, “two minds are better than one.” When it comes to social media, millions of minds come together to solve problems, seek out answers, and disseminate vital information. As has been evident in recent days, the public has played a key role in both information dissemination and assistance to authorities via social media.

Social Media Aids Disaster Recovery Efforts

A primary source of real-time information, social media has had a transformative effect on modern disaster recovery. It has played a key role in everything from natural disasters to man-made tragedies worldwide. Bystanders and people miles away take to social media during disasters for multiple purposes, from alerting authorities to who and where the injured may be and locating important persons of interest.

Social media also affords the government a nearly unparalleled level of transparency in times of disaster. Real time updates  – like those which we saw during the apprehension of the Boston Marathon bombing suspects – allow the public to not just be witness to but also assist in times of crisis.

Social Media and The Spread of Vital Information

Social media also drives information dissemination at a rate never known before – hotlines to find injured family members are found quickly and easily, and the process of seeking and finding of loved ones has become a crowd-sourced process. Important information can be shared with millions, and by millions, quickly and efficiently.

Social Media and Disaster Relief

Social Media is also useful in the days and months following a disaster. Raising money for victims is no easy feat when done offline. “Crowd-funding” allows users near and far with a simple and fast way to donate to and solicit donations for victims of disasters. As we saw recently in Boston, in many cases hundreds of thousands of dollars have been raised for disaster victims. Social media allowed for triumph in the midst of tragedy, helping victims start new lives with a tremendous support system.

Natural disasters like the tsunami in Japan and Hurricane Sandy reflect the public’s desire to participate and aid victims through social media. Many turn to social media outlets first to learn what is happening, see how they can contribute, and keep on top of developing events.

Social Media Offers A Worldwide Network

Social media is an incredibly useful means for public participation and government transparency.  Never again will there be a time where television is our only source of news during times of need and disaster. From aiding the FBI to aiding victims of national disasters, Twitter, Facebook and other online media serve as vital components of transparency and efficient outlets for managing disaster responses.

Rule XIII, Art. 62, Art. 63, Art. 64, RULES AND REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTING THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF 1991

RULE XIII

Local Government Relations With People’s Organizations, Non governmental Organizations, and the Private Sector

ARTICLE 62. Role of People’s Organizations, Nongovernmental Organizations and the Private Sector. — LGUs shall promote the establishment and operation of people’s organizations, NGOs, and the private sector, to make them active partners in the pursuit of local autonomy. For this purpose, people’s organizations, NGOs, and the private sector shall be directly involved in the following plans, programs, projects, or activities of LGUs:

(a) Local special bodies;

(b) Delivery of basic services and facilities;

(c) Joint ventures and cooperative programs or undertakings;

(d) Financial and other forms of assistance;

(e) Preferential treatment for organizations and cooperatives of marginal fishermen;

(f) Preferential treatment for cooperatives development; and (g) Financing, construction, maintenance, operation, and management of infrastructure projects.

ARTICLE 63. Local Special Bodies. —

(a) Local Development Councils — The duly designated representatives of accredited people’s organizations, NGOs, and the private sector operating in the provinces, cities, municipalities, or barangays shall sit as members in the provincial, city, municipal, or barangay development councils, as the case may be. The number of NGO representatives in each LDC shall not be less than one-fourth (1/4) of the total membership of the fully organized council. The local chief executive shall undertake the necessary information campaign to ensure participation of all NGOs operating within his territorial jurisdiction.

(b) Local Pre-qualification, Bids and Awards Committees — Two (2)representatives of people’s organizations or NGOs that are represented in the LDC concerned, to be chosen by the organizations themselves, and a practicing certified public accountant from the private sector, to be designated by the local chapter of the Philippine Institute of Certified Public Accountant, if any, shall sit as members of  the provincial, city, and municipal pre-qualification, bids and awards committees (PBACs).

(c) Local Health Boards — A representative from NGOs or the private sector involved in health services in the province, city, and municipality shall sit as member of the provincial, city or municipal health boards, respectively.

(d) Local School Boards — The representatives of NGOs or the private sector who shall sit as members of the local school boards are as follows:

(1) Provincial school board — the duly elected president of the provincial federation of parents-teachers associations, the duly elected representative of teachers’ organizations in the province, and the duly elected representative of the non-academic personnel of public schools in the province;

(2) City school board — the duly elected president of the city federation of parents-teachers associations, the duly elected representative of teachers’ organizations in the city, and the duly elected representative of the non-academic personnel of public schools in the city;

(3) Municipal school board — the duly elected president of the municipal federation of parents-teachers associations, the duly elected representative of the teachers’ organizations in the municipality, and the duly elected representative of the non-academic personnel of the public schools in the municipality;

(e) Local Peace and Order Councils — The representatives of people’s organizations or NGOs in the local peace and order councils shall be the same as those provided under Presidential EO 309, series of 1988, as amended, and the implementing rules and regulations issued pursuant thereto (Annex B).

(f) People’s Law Enforcement Boards — The representatives of people’s organizations or NGOs who sit as members of the boards shall be the same as those provided under RA 6975, and the rules and regulations issued pursuant thereto.

ARTICLE 64. Procedures and Guidelines for Selection of Representatives of People’s Organizations, Nongovernmental Organizations, or the Private Sector in Local Special Bodies. —

(a) Call for application — Within thirty (30) days from the approval of these Rules and thereafter, within thirty (30) days from the organization of the newly elected sanggunian, each sanggunian concerned shall call all community-based people’s organizations or NGOs, including business and professional groups, and other similar aggrupations to apply with the LGU concerned for accreditation for membership in the local special bodies. The application shall include a duly approved board resolution of the people’s organizations, NGOs or the private sector concerned, certificate of registration, list of officers, accomplishments, and financial data of the organization;

(b) Accreditation — The sanggunian concerned shall accredit the organizations based on the following criteria:

(1) Registration with either the Securities and Exchange Commission, Cooperatives Development Authority, Department of Labor and Employment, Department of Social Welfare and Development, or any recognized NGA that accredits people’s organizations, NGOs, or the private sector. If not formally registered, the said organizations may be recognized by the sanggunian for purposes only of meeting the minimum requirements for membership of such organizations in local special bodies;

(2) Organizational purpose and objectives include community organization and development, institution-building, local enterprise development, livelihood development, capability-building, and similar developmental objectives and considerations;

(3) Community-based with project development and implementation track record of at least one (1) year;

(4) Reliability as evidenced by the preparation of annual reports and conduct of annual meetings duly certified by the board secretary of the organization; and

(5) In the case of PBACs, the organization or any of its members shall have no conflict of interest in the awarding of infrastructure or other projects.

(c) Completion of the accreditation process — The sanggunian shall complete the accreditation process within sixty (60) days from the promulgation of these Rules or within the same period from the organization of the newly elected sanggunian.

(d) Meeting to choose representatives of people’s organizations, NGOs, or the private sector — Within fifteen (15) days after the accreditation process, the DILG field officer assigned in the LGU shall call all accredited people’s organizations, NGOs, or the private sector to a meeting where these organizations shall choose from among themselves which people’s organizations, NGOs or private sector will be represented in the local special bodies. The selected people’s organizations, NGOs or private sector shall then designate their principal and alternate representatives who are residents of the LGU concerned. In no case shall an organization or a representative thereof be a member of more than one local special body within a province, city, or municipality.

(e) Term of office of selected representatives — The term of office of a selected representative shall be coterminous with that of the local chief executive concerned. Should a vacancy arise, the selected people’s organizations, NGOs, or the private sector shall designate a replacement for the unexpired term.

The Principles of Good Governance

Fair Conduct of Elections, Representation and Participation

  • Local elections are conducted freely and fairly, according to international standards and national legislation, and without any fraud.
  • Citizens are at the centre of public activity and they are involved in clearly defined ways in public life at local level.
  • All men and women can have a voice in decision-making, either directly or through legitimate intermediate bodies that represent their interests. Such broad participation is built on the freedoms of expression, assembly and association.
  • All voices, including those of the less privileged and most vulnerable, are heard and taken into account in decision-making, including over the allocation of resources.
  • There is always an honest attempt to mediate between various legitimate interests and to reach a broad consensus on what is in the best interest of the whole community and on how this can be achieved.
  • Decisions are taken according to the will of the many, while the rights and legitimate interests of the few are respected.

Responsiveness

  • Objectives, rules, structures, and procedures are adapted to the legitimate expectations and needs of citizens.
  • Public services are delivered, and requests and complaints are responded to within a reasonable timeframe.

Efficiency and Effectiveness

  • Results meet the agreed objectives.
  • Best possible use is made of the resources available.
  • Performance management systems make it possible to evaluate and enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of services.
  • Audits are carried out at regular intervals to assess and improve performance.

 Openness and Transparency

  • Decisions are taken and enforced in accordance with rules and regulations.
  • There is public access to all information which is not classified for well-specified reasons as provided for by law (such as the protection of privacy or ensuring the fairness of procurement procedures).
  • Information on decisions, implementation of policies and results is made available to the public in such a way as to enable it to effectively follow and contribute to the work of the local authority.

 Rule of Law

  • The local authorities abide by the law and judicial decisions.
  • Rules and regulations are adopted in accordance with procedures provided for by law and are enforced impartially.

Ethical Conduct

  • The public good is placed before individual interests.
  • There are effective measures to prevent and combat all forms of corruption.
  • Conflicts of interest are declared in a timely manner and persons involved must abstain from taking part in relevant decisions.

 Competence and Capacity

  • The professional skills of those who deliver governance are continuously maintained and strengthened in order to improve their output and impact.
  • Public officials are motivated to continuously improve their performance.
  • Practical methods and procedures are created and used in order to transform skills into capacity and to produce better results.

 Innovation and Openness to Change

  • New and efficient solutions to problems are sought and advantage is taken of modern methods of service provision.
  • There is readiness to pilot and experiment new programmes and to learn from the experience of others.
  • A climate favourable to change is created in the interest of achieving better results.

 Sustainability and Long-term Orientation

  • The needs of future generations are taken into account in current policies.
  • The sustainability of the community is constantly taken into account. Decisions strive to internalise all costs and not to transfer problems and tensions, be they environmental, structural, financial, economic or social, to future generations.
  • There is a broad and long-term perspective on the future of the local community along with a sense of what is needed for such development.
  • There is an understanding of the historical, cultural and social complexities in which this perspective is grounded.

 Sound Financial Management

  • Charges do not exceed the cost of services provided and do not reduce demand excessively, particularly in the case of important public services.
  • Prudence is observed in financial management, including in the contracting and use of loans, in the estimation of resources, revenues and reserves, and in the use of exceptional revenue.
  • Multi-annual budget plans are prepared, with consultation of the public.
  • Risks are properly estimated and managed, including by the publication of consolidated accounts and, in the case of public-private partnerships, by sharing the risks realistically.
  • The local authority takes part in arrangements for inter-municipal solidarity, fair sharing of burdens and benefits and reduction of risks (equalisation systems, inter-municipal co-operation, mutualisation of risks…)

 Human rights, Cultural Diversity and Social Cohesion

  • Within the local authority’s sphere of influence, human rights are respected, protected and implemented, and discrimination on any grounds is combated.
  • Cultural diversity is treated as an asset, and continuous efforts are made to ensure that all have a stake in the local community, identify with it and do not feel excluded.
  • Social cohesion and the integration of disadvantaged areas are promoted.
  • Access to essential services is preserved, in particular for the most disadvantaged sections of the population.

 Accountability

  • All decision-makers, collective and individual, take responsibility for their decisions.
  • Decisions are reported on, explained and can be sanctioned.
  • There are effective remedies against maladministration and against actions of local authorities which infringe civil rights.

Four more years in the same direction cannot be tolerated.

WikiLeaks comment on U.S. election:
Wed Nov 7 06:22:37 UTC 2012

Obama promised a more open government. But instead his administration has built a state within a state, placing nearly five million Americans under the national security clearance system, replete with secret laws, secret budgets, secret bailouts, secret killings, secret mass spying, and secret detention without charge.

Four more years in the same direction cannot be tolerated.

The Obama administration continues to conduct a “whole of government” investigation of “unprecedented scale and nature” into WikiLeaks and its people. It has fuelled the extrajudicial banking blockade against the WikiLeaks and has held an alleged WikiLeaks source, Bradley Manning, for 899 days without trial, in conditions that the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Torture, Juan Mendez, formally found amounted to torture.

Mr Assange has been formally found to be a political refugee over the Obama administration’s behavior, U.S. ambassadors publicly warned countries such as Switzerland not to offer him asylum.

The Obama-Biden campaign brags of having prosecuted twice as many national security whistleblowers as “all previous administrations combined”. http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2012/sep/05/obama-campaign-brags-about-whistleblower-persecutions. This must change.

Politicians always say your decision, come election-time, will determine the future. But, as has been seen with the Obama administration, deciding on who gets into formal office is not a meaningful choice, because when you vote your party into government you also vote the government, including all its agencies and contractors, into your party.

Parties taking office are eliminated as the restraining voice of opposition. The last four years, like the next four years, will see the U.S. republican party as the ‘restraining’ voice of opposition.

But there is another option.

It was WikiLeaks’ revelations – not the actions of President Obama – that forced the U.S. administration out of the Iraq War. By exposing the killing of Iraqi children, WikiLeaks directly motivated the Iraqi government to strip the U.S. military of legal immunity, which in turn forced the U.S. withdrawal.http://salon.com/2011/10/23/wikileaks_cables_and_the_iraq_war/

It was WikiLeaks’ revelations and pan-Arab activists, not the Obama administration, that helped to trigger the Arab Spring. While WikiLeaks was exposing dictators from Yemen to Cairo, Vice-President Joseph Biden was calling Hosni Mubarak a democrat, Hillary Clinton was calling his government “stable” and the U.S. administration was colluding with Yemeni dictator Saleh to bomb his own people.http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2011/may/13/amnesty-international-wikileaks-arab-springhttp://www.worldaffairsjournal.org/article/wikihistory-did-leaks-inspire-arab-spring

And it was WikiLeaks’ revelations, not the White House, that led to the reform of the largest children’s hospital network in the United States.http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Report_on_Shriners_raises_question_of_wrongdoing

Just over a month ago, on 28 September, the Pentagon again threatened WikiLeaks. Pentagon spokesman George Little demanded WikiLeaks destroy its publications, including the Iraq War logs which revealed the killings of more than 100,000 civilians. Little said: “continued possession by WikiLeaks of classified information belonging to the United States government represents a continuing violation of law”. The Pentagon also again “warned Mr Assange and WikiLeaks” against “soliciting” material from U.S. military whistleblowers.

Don’t ‘hope’. ACT.

http://wikileaks.org/donate2012
http://bradleymanning.org/
http://freehammond.org/
http://justice4assange.com/

Ang Kinatatakutang abuso sa Cybercrime Law, Naganap na

Ang pangamba ng Netizens’ sa Republic Act No. 10175 or the Anti-Cybercrime Act of 2012 ay naganap na.

Bagama’t ang alegasyong kremin o libelo ay ginawa matagal ng panahon, bago paman isabatas ang nasabing batas ito ay may pang-aabusong gianagamit ng may impluwensya, kapangyarihan at may salapi.

Ito ang ginamit laban kay Esperlita Garcia ng Calayan, Gonzaga, Cagayan para aristohin sa kanyang pagpapahayag gamit ang Facebook.

Ang kanyang pagpapahayag sa Facebook ay ginawa nakaraang taon pa. Subalit, siya ay inaresto ngayon lamang Oktobre 16, 2012 kung kailan ang Cybercrime Law na naging kontrobersyal ay pansamantalang wala bisa batay sa TRO na inilabas ng Supreme Court.

Tama at pinatotohanan ng usaping ito ang malaganap na pangamba ng taongbayan na ang Cybercrime Law ay aabusuhin lamang ng mga taong may sapat na salapi at impluwensya sa hukuman at pamahalaan.

Marapat lamang na ang Batas na ito ay tuluyang IPAWALANG BISA ng Korte suprema. ###

Read more from the Source: Cagayan anti-mining leader arrested over Facebook post

FOI pinaglaruan ng mga Politiko

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Well, what do you know? PNoy DID have ‘FOI’ in his SONA

Who says President Aquino left FOI out of his State of the Nation Address? Freedom of Information advocate Vincent Lazatin took a closer look at PNoy’s speech and found the devil in the details. By: Interaksyon

More than 100 lawmakers sign manifesto pushing for FOI bill

Lawyer Nepomuceno Malaluan (second from right), flanked by lawmakers and members of the National Union of Journalists in the Philippines, expresses disapproval over attempts to “dribble the FOI bill to death”. Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, InterAksyon.com

As a candidate in May 2010, President Aquino had promised to enact an FOI law as a strategic pillar of his ‘daang matuwid’ (straight path) administration. His study group has proposed, which in turn he endorsed, an FOI version that includes amendments to address his concerns,” the group said. By: Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, InterAksyon

Onus for FOI passage on public info committee – Gonzales

The bill, which seeks to provide the people with access to information such as government documents upon formal request, had been killed on the last session day of the House in the 14th Congress for lack of a quorum. By: Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, InterAksyon.com

Running out of time, FOI advocates find ‘no room’ in Congress as well

Instead of having it on the week of October 15, as Speaker Feliciano Belmonte Jr. had earlier announced, the hearing has been reset for November 13, a little over a month before Congress goes on break again. By: Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, InterAksyon.com

FOI in ICU, says Tanada

“Representative Ben Evardone placed the FOI in ICU, in life support, gasping for breath,” Deputy Speaker Lorenzo “Erin” Tanada III said, when asked about the new schedule of the hearing. By: Lira Dalangin-Fernandez, InterAksyon

NUJP, KBP, PPI and news groups observe FOI day

The National Union of Journalists of the Philippines (NUJP) stands united today with other journalists and media groups as the Philippine media community reiterates its demand for the long-awaited passage of the Freedom of Information (FOI) Act.

In a statement released Thursday, the NUJP said, “The government has clearly run out of excuses to delay the passage of the Freedom of Information bill.”

“The only plausible reason why the FOI bill continues to languish in Congress is that the administration does not intend to see it become law,” it added.

NUJP challenged President Benigno Aquino III to show a firm resolve to pass the measure, saying, “But if President Aquino could push the House to end the debates on the Reproductive Health bill although he was certain to court the ire of the Catholic church, we see no reason why he cannot do the same for the FOI bill, which can only earn him the people’s appreciation.

“Mr. Aquino, believe us, there is nothing we desire more than for you to prove us wrong. And we dare you to do so,” NUJP said. Read more from the Source… Interaksyon

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Cybercrime Law not in the Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

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Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016

Good Governance and the Rule of Law

Good governance sets the normative standards of development. It fosters participation, ensures transparency, demands accountability, promotes efficiency, and upholds the rule of law in economic, political and administrative institutions and processes. It is a hallmark of political maturity but also a requisite for growth and poverty reduction, for there are irreducible minimum levels of governance needed for large- scale investment to occur and for social programs to be supported. A cornerstone of good governance is adherence to the rule of law, that is, the impersonal and impartial application of stable and predictable laws, statutes, rules, and regulations, without regard for social status or political considerations. This chapter assesses the quality of governance in the country and identifies key governance challenges that constrain development. It then lays down corresponding strategiesto achieve good governance anchored on the rule of law, and provide an enabling environment for national development.

Assessment and Challenges

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Citizens’ Participation

Although citizens have a legal right of access to communication, there is no established legal route for citizens to petition to obtain government records.

The actual practice of many citizens testifies to the highly uneven willingness or preparedness of government offices to provide information as well as the poor quality of the information provided, if at all.

This is also seen from the country’s low score for the 2008 Global Integrity Report under the category of Civil Society, Public Information and Media category, which even dropped one point from the 2007 score of 69. The proposed Freedom of Information Act is an important step towards addressing this problem.

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Strategic Framework

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Enhance Citizens’ Access to Information and Participation in Governance

  1. Pursue the Passage of the Freedom of Information Bill. The Freedom of Information Bill is intended to give the citizenry access to information by allowing full disclosure of all transactions which are of public interest. It aims to institute transparency in the national and local government’s undertakings relative to loans, treaties, contacts and other similar transactions.
  2. Issue an Executive-Wide Policy on Public Access to Information Pending the Passing of the Right to Information Act
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Wala sa nasabing Development Plan ang Cybercrime Law. Sa katonayan ang binigyan diin sa nasabing Strategic Framework ay ang pagkakaroon ng Batas na kung tawagin ay Freedom Of Information Law para sa ganun ay magkaroon ng partikular na batas para magkaroon ng access ang mamamayan sa mga inpormasyon sa pamahalaan.

Sa ganitong karaanan mabibigyan ng kapangyarihan ang mamamayan at sa huli ay nagkakaroon ng opotunidad na makilahok sa pamamahala.

At habang hindi pa napagtitibay ang FOI ay magkakaroon ng patakaran na pansamantalang gabay at/o panuntunan sa kalayaan sa inpormasyon.

Pinagtagal na ang FOI ng mga mambabatas, wala padin ang sinasabing pansamantalang patakaran. Ang hindi katangap-tangap ay ang bigla at pagmamadaling pagsasabatas ng Cybercrime Law na bandang huli ay may pag-amin ang mga mambabatas na sila ay nagkamali sa nasabing batas.

Matatandaan na ang Cybercrime Law ay biglang lumitaw at pinagtibay, pagkatapos na paratangan ang isang senator ng plagiarism at sinabi ng senador na ito na siya ay biktima ng cyber bully.

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